Open data catalogue website provided by the City of Edmonton, provincial capital of Alberta, Canada. Features a variety of topical data sets, including locations of schools, fire stations, bus stops, census data, etc.
Disclaimer - I'm an American who is just dipping his toe in the waters of open data and transparency issues in Canada - I welcome input from those more informed :-)
After releasing our "Guide to Nonprofit Mapping" last week, we quickly got inquiries from countries outside the US seeking localized and translated versions (which is underway! :-). While exchanging emails with some colleagues in Canada, I started researching the availability of Canadian data sources. First, I tried to find the Canadian equivalent to the US federal government site Data.gov, a repository of publicly available data from executive branch agencies in the US government (the UK has a similar site, data.gov.uk). The closest thing I could find after some cursory searching was the website for Statistics Canada (StatCan) the official government body tasked as Canada's central statistical agency.
Operated by Natural Resources Canada, GeoGratis is a new portal that attempts to improve access to freely available Candian government-created geodata. Although many government geodata resources in Canada are protected by Crown Copyright and thus not freely available, all of the data on this portal should be free to obtain and use for any purpose.