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osgeo

GeoTools: Java Library

"GeoTools is an open source (LGPL) Java code library which provides standards compliant methods for the manipulation of geospatial data, for example to implement Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The GeoTools library implements Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications as they are developed. The capabilities of GeoTools are presented in the feature list."

 

GDAL: Geospatial Data Abstraction Library

"GDAL is a translator library for raster geospatial data formats that is released under an X/MIT style Open Source license by the Open Source Geospatial Foundation. As a library, it presents a single abstract data model to the calling application for all supported formats."

Chameleon

"Chameleon incorporates the ability to quickly set up new applications from a common pool of widgets that can be placed in an HTML template file. These widgets provide a fixed piece of functionality, but the representation of the widget is usually highly configurable."

And also an Open Source Geo project.

GeoNetwork

Another OSGeo project. GeoNetwork lets organization share and use open source geospatial data using the internet.

MapServer (UMN)

MapServer is one of, if not THE granddaddy of the open source GIS tools.  Developed for NASA by the University of Minnesota in the 90s, MapServer was adopted by the OSGeo and development continues today.  MapServer is cross-platform and MIT-licensed, so it's used by tons of organizations and projects. 

MapServer serves maps - it can generate and serve maps based on tons of input, scripted associations, custom development, base layers, output technologies, etc.  It is not a tool for geospatial queries and analysis, however.